The Modern Language Association, the authority on research and writing, takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. Works are published today in a dizzying range of formats. A book, for example, may be read in print, online, or as an e-book—or perhaps listened to in an audio version. On the Web, modes of publication are regularly invented, combined, and modified. Previous editions of the MLA Handbook provided separate instructions for each format, and new formats required additional instructions. In this groundbreaking new edition of its best-selling handbook, the MLA recommends instead one universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any type of source.
Shorter and redesigned for easy use, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook guides writers through the principles behind evaluating sources for their research. It then shows them how to cite sources in their writing and create useful entries for the works-cited list.
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List of works cited at the end of the paper
(See pages 123 - 212 in the HANDBOOK)The heading (centered) on the page of sources should read
. Each page should benumbered, continuing the page numbers of the text. Each entry starts at the left margin. If there ismore than one line, each subsequent line should be indented one half inch or 5 spaces. Doublespace the entire list, both between and within entries (this is not done on this handout). This listshould be alphabetized by author’s last name. If there is no author, start with the title. In titles,capitalize the first, last, and all principal words. Italicize the title, but not the period following thetitle.
Book Citation Basic Format:
(Note that the period following the title is not italicized)Author.
. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. Medium of publication.Examples from or based on the 7
edition of the
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution
.New York: Farrar, 2002. Print.•
Two or more authors
Marquart, James W., Sheldon Ekland Olson, and Jonathan R. Sorensen.
The Rope, the Chair, and the Needle: Capital Punishment in Texas, 1923-1990
. Austin: U of Texas P, 1994. Print.•
Three or more authors
Plag, Ingo, et al.
Introduction to English Linguistics
. Berlin: Mouton, 2007. Print.•
American Medical Association.
The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine
.New York: Random, 1989. Print.•
Anthology or compilation
Sevillano, Mando, comp.
The Hopi Way: Tales from a Vanishing Culture
. Flagstaff: Northland,1986. Print.•
(If using one volume, state the volume number in the entry. If using two ormore, cite the total number of volumes.)Blanco, Richard L., ed.
The American Revolution, 1775–1783: An Encyclopedia
. 2 vols.Hamden: Garland, 1993. Print.Wellek, Rene.
A History of Modern Criticism, 1750-1950
. 8 vols. New Haven: Yale UP, 1955-92.Print.