Bibliography In Latex Tutorial Deutsch

Bibliography in LaTeX with Bibtex/Biblatex

Learn how to create a bibliography with Bibtex and Biblatex in a few simple steps. Create references / citations and autogenerate footnotes.

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[View example on Overleaf]

  1. Creating a .bib file
  2. Using BibTeX
  3. Autogenerate footnotes with BibLaTeX
  4. BibTeX Format
  5. BibTeX Styles

We have looked at many features of LaTeX so far and learned that many things are automated by LaTeX. There are functions to add a table of contents, lists of tables and figures and also several packages that allow us to generate a bibliography. I will describe how to use bibtex and biblatex (both external programs) to create the bibliography. At first we have to create a .bib file, which contains our bibliographic information.

Creating a .bib file

A .bib file will contain the bibliographic information of our document. I will only give a simple example, since there are many tools to generate the entries automatically. I will not explain the structure of the file itself at this point, since i suggest using a bibtex generator (choose one from google). Our example will contain a single book and look like this:

@BOOK{DUMMY:1, AUTHOR="John Doe", TITLE="The Book without Title", PUBLISHER="Dummy Publisher", YEAR="2100", }

If you don't want to use a BibTeX generator or a reference management tool like Citavi (which generates BibTeX files automatically for you), you can find more examples of BibTeX formats here.

Using BibTeX

After creating the bibtex file, we have to tell LaTeX where to find our bibliographic database. For BibTeX this is not much different from printing the table of contents. We just need the commands \bibliography which tells LaTeX the location of our .bib file and \bibliographystyle which selects one of various bibliographic styles.

\documentclass{article} \begin{document} Random citation \cite{DUMMY:1} embeddeed in text. \newpage \bibliography{lesson7a1} \bibliographystyle{ieeetr} \end{document}

By using this code, we will obtain something like this:

I named my .bib file lesson7a1.bib, note that I did not enter the .bib extension. For the style, I've choosen the ieeetr style, which is very common for my subject, but there are many more styles available. Which will change the way our references look like. The ieeetr style will mark citations with successive numbers such as [1] in this example. If I choose the style to apalike instead, i will get the following result:

Most editors will let you select, to run bibtex automatically on compilation. In TeXworks (MiKTeX) for example, this should be selected by default.

If you use a different editor, it can be necessary to execute the bibtex command manually. In a command prompt/shell simply run:

pdflatex lesson7a1.tex bibtex lesson7a1 pdflatex lesson7a1.tex pdflatex lesson7a1.tex

It is necessary to execute the pdflatex command, before the bibtex command, to tell bibtex what literature we cited in our paper. Afterwards the .bib file will be translated into the proper output for out references section. The next two steps merge the reference section with our LaTeX document and then assign successive numbers in the last step.

Autogenerate footnotes in $\LaTeX$ using BibLaTeX

The abilities of BibTeX are limited to basic styles as depicted in the examples shown above. Sometimes it is necessary to cite all literature in footnotes and maintaining all of them by hand can be a frustrating task. At this point BibLaTeX kicks in and does the work for us. The syntax varies a bit from the first document. We now have to include the biblatex package and use the \autocite and \printbibliography command. It is crucial to move the \bibliography{lesson7a1} statement to the preamble of our document:

\documentclass{article} \usepackage[backend=bibtex,style=verbose-trad2]{biblatex} \bibliography{lesson7a1} \begin{document} Random citation \autocite[1]{DUMMY:1} embeddeed in text. \newpage \printbibliography \end{document}

The \autocite command generates the footnotes and we can enter a page number in the brackets \autocite[1]{DUMMY:1} will generate a footnote like this:

For BibLaTeX we have to choose the citation style on package inclusion with:

\usepackage[backend=bibtex,style=verbose-trad2]{biblatex}

The backend=bibtex part makes sure to use BibTeX instead of Biber as our backend, since Biber fails to work in some editors like TeXworks. It took me a while to figure out how to generate footnotes automatically, because the sources I found on the internet, didn't mention this at all.

BibTeX Formats

This is not meant to be a comprehensive list of BibTeX formats, but rather give you an idea of how to cite various sources properly. If you're interested in an extensive overview of all BibTeX formats, I suggest you to check out the resources on Wikibooks.

Article

@ARTICLE{ARTICLE:1, AUTHOR="John Doe", TITLE="Title", JOURNAL="Journal", YEAR="2017", }

Book

@BOOK{BOOK:1, AUTHOR="John Doe", TITLE="The Book without Title", PUBLISHER="Dummy Publisher", YEAR="2100", }

Inbook (specific pages)

@INBOOK{BOOK:2, AUTHOR="John Doe", TITLE="The Book without Title", PUBLISHER="Dummy Publisher", YEAR="2100", PAGES="100-200", }

Website

@MISC{WEBSITE:1, HOWPUBLISHED = "\url{http://example.com}", AUTHOR = "Intel", TITLE = "Example Website", MONTH = "Dec", YEAR = "1988", NOTE = "Accessed on 2012-11-11" }

This is a list of the formats that I have most commonly used. If you think some important format is missing here, please let me know.

BibTeX Styles

Here's a quick overview of some popular styles to use with BibTeX.

Abbrv

Alpha

Apalike

IEEEtr

Plain

I'm trying to keep this list updated with other commonly used styles. If you're missing something here, please let me know.

Summary

  • Generate a bibliography with BibTeX and BibLaTeX
  • First define a .bib file using: \bibliography{BIB_FILE_NAME} (do not add .bib)
  • For BibTeX put the \bibliography statement in your document, for BibLaTeX in the preamble
  • BibTeX uses the \bibliographystyle command to set the citation style
  • BibLaTeX chooses the style as an option like: \usepackage[backend=bibtex, style=verbose-trad2]{biblatex}
  • BibTeX uses the \cite command, while BibLaTeX uses the \autocite command
  • The \autocite command takes the page number as an option: \autocite[NUM]{}

Next Lesson: Lesson 8

This video is part of a series. See all in the series

Links and Examples

Here are some of the useful links we mentioned in the video.

BibTex source types: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Bibliography_Management#Standard_templates Bibliography styles: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Bibliography_Management#Bibliography_styles Information on Natbib: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Bibliography_Management#Natbib

Here is the ‘.bib’ file we used in the video:

You can also open the project we used in the video in ShareLaTeX by following this link: https://www.sharelatex.com/project/51efbcd9335f3d637026853c

Transcript

In the last video we looked at inserting graphics into our documents. In this video we are going to look at writing bibliographies with BibTeX. Often when composing documents in LaTeX we need to cite different authors that we’ve quoted or referred to and compile a list of these sources in a bibliography. One way of writing a bibliography is to use an environment called ‘the bibliography’. However this is not advised as it isn’t very flexible. A better way of doing it is to use a feature of LaTeX called BibTeX. This involves creating a list or database of sources in a separate file. To do this select the new button in the project panel and select new file. For this method to work we need to save the file as a ‘.bib’ file rather than a ‘.tex’ file. Now every time we need to reference a source we can cite it in the ‘.tex’ file and then fill in the source details in the ‘.bib’ file. First we’ll look at filling in our ‘.bib’ file and then we’ll move on to discussing citations.

To make a new entry in our ‘.bib’ file we need to first tell BibTeX what type of source we are referencing. We then need to tell it all the details it wants for that particular type of source. There are many standard sources that BibTeX can work with. For example an article, a book, a manual, a PhD thesis and several more. I will show you three of the ones that you are most likely to use. Each recognised source type has a list of required details which you must provide, all of this information can be found online.

This is what unfilled in entries look like for an article, a book and a website. The standard structure for a BibTeX entry starts with an @ symbol followed immediately by the type of source you are citing. Then comes an opening curly bracket and a citation key of your choice which you will later use as the label to cite with in the ‘.tex’ file. After a comma the following lines form a list of BibTex keywords each followed by an equals sign and the corresponding information in quotations marks. Each item in this list is separated by a comma. After the last keyword and corresponding information you don’t need a comma but instead you close the curly brackets on the next line. For an article entry you need to fill in the author, title, journal and year information, the rest are optional. For a book entry it’s the author, title, publisher and year you must fill in.
When it comes to adding a web address we use the misc type. For this source type all the keywords are optional but for a web entry you are at least going to want the URL. Here’s an example of what they might look like filled in.

A few things to note. When adding multiple authors we separate each author by the word ‘and’. In these examples the authors have been put in with their forename first and then their surname. Another way you can do it is to put their surname in first, follow it immediately with a comma and then their forename after a space. This second method is probably the best method if an author has multiple forenames as it will ensure BibTeX knows exactly which name is a forename and which is the surname. Another thing to point out is the curly brackets used in the title of the first example. These curly brackets are there to ensure BibTeX keeps the capital letters as capitals, as some BibTeX styles don’t preserve all the capitals within the title. So thats an example of a ‘.bib’ file.

Now let’s return to the main tex file and add some citations. To add a citation we use the command followed by the citation key you chose in you ‘.bib’ file for the relevant source. Now to get the bibliography to appear on the page we need to add two commands into the document. First the command and then the command. We will add them at the bottom of the page just before the command. Both of these commands need us to give them more information in the curly brackets. The command needs us to enter a style name. There are several styles you can use, but we’ll just use the ‘plain’ style. You can find out more about other styles online. The command wants us to enter the file name of the ‘.bib’ file containing the details of the sources we are citing. If you’ve split your source details over multiple bib files you can enter multiple filenames into this command by separating them with a comma. Now if we compile the document you will notice the citations appear in the text as bracketed numbers and a ‘References’ section has appeared below the text. At this point I should inform you that if you’re not using ShareLaTeX as your LaTeX editor you would need to run LaTeX, then run BibTeX and then run LaTeX again to get to the desired output. ShareLaTeX streamlines this process into one click of the green recompile button.

Finally I want to introduce you to the Natbib package. This is a package which gives you more options as to how your citations to appear in the text. To load up this package add a new command into the preamble. In the curly brackets we need to write ‘natbib’. In the square brackets we can enter one or more of the natbib option keywords. These keywords are used to change things like the type of brackets you want used in the citations among other things. Lists of these keywords can be found online. By default natbib uses the author-year system but it can be changed to the numeric style by using the ‘numbers’ keyword. In our example we’ll keep the author-year system but specify round parentheses by adding the keyword ‘round’. Now that our package is loaded and configured we need to change the citation commands to natbib citation commands. These commands give you more control over how the citations appear in the text, for sake of time I won’t introduce all of them to you, I’ll just demonstrate the command. By changing my existing commands to commands, the citations will appear in the text entirely encapsulated in brackets. The final thing we need to do when using natbib is change the bibliography style to one that is compatible with natbib, we will use the ‘plainnat’ style but again details of these can be found online.

This concludes our discussion on bibliographies. In the next video we’ll look at inserting tables and matrices.

Published on 24 Jul 2013

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