2 Sample Refutation Paragraphs
(Each these samples have 2-paragraph refutation; some essays may only have a 1 paragraph refutation while other essays, like research papers, may require a much longer refutation)
Charter Schools Vs. Public Schools (School Choice)
By Mark Liles
Thesis: School choice turns out to not only be a bad idea; it’s also a violation of our constitution.
Refutation: ...[Introduce Opposing Arguments] Considering the many challenges facing public schools, it’s understandable that many people would be eager to pursue new options. Supporters of school choice point out that under the current public school system, parents with economic means already exercise school choice by moving from areas with failing or dangerous schools to neighborhoods with better, safer schools. Their argument is that school choice would allow all parents the freedom, regardless of income level, to select the school that provides the best education (Chub and Moe). Schools would then have to compete for students by offering higher academic results and greater safety. Schools unable to measure up to the standards of successful schools would fail and possibly close. [Acknowledge Valid Parts] Activists within the school choice movement can be applauded for seeking to improve public education, but the changes they propose would in fact seriously damage public education as a whole.
[Counter Arguments] One of the biggest dangers of school choice is the power behind large corporations specializing in opening and operating charter schools. Two notable companies are Green Dot, which is the leading public school operator in Los Angeles (Green Dot), and KIPP, which operates 65 schools in 19 different states [KIPP]. These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. It is feared that these corporations could grow to a point that public control of education would be lost. Education policy would be left in the hands of entrepreneurial think tanks, corporate boards of directors, and lobbyists who are more interested in profit than educating students [Miller and Gerson]. [Begin Concluding] Education should be left in the hands of professional educators and not business people with MBAs. To do otherwise is not only dangerous, it defies common sense.
What I liked about this refutation: The writer calmly and clearly outlines the true concerns and reasons why people oppose the opinion. He makes sure the reader knows that he is outlining opposing viewpoints because he gives hints like "Supporters of school choice point out that..." or "Their argument is that...". This is a nice way for readers to be aware of what others think.
Also, towards the end of the first paragraph, and throughout the second paragraph, the writer spends time clearly attacking these opposing views. He helps the reader feel like the opposing views might SEEM good on the surface, but they are indeed not good enough. He helps the reader see this with hints like "One of the biggest dangers of school choice is..." or "It is feared that...". This paragraph particularly draws in any hostile readers; the writer cunningly draws them in by complimenting their views when he says "Activists within the school choice movement can be applauded for seeking to improve public education," but he immediately points out the flaws, saying that " the changes they propose would in fact seriously damage public education as a whole." Complimenting the opposing argument really invites all your hesitant readers; they’re not threatened, and they’re now more willing to listen to the arguments.
Finally, at the end of the refutation, there is a clear conclusion.
Safe Traveler Cards
Taken from College Writers pg. 733-734
........[Introduce Opposing Arguments] As attractive as Safe Traveler Cards or national ID cards are, they are not without drawbacks. For one thing, as Easterbrook notes, these cards would expedite security procedures only for travelers who do not mind volunteering such information to obtain a card. Moreover they would not prevent passengers with "clean" backgrounds from bringing weapons or explosives on board, as was the case in the September 11 attacks. Perhaps the biggest drawback is that some people believe that these cards would deprive people of their privacy and that for this reason, their disadvantages outweigh their advantages (168).
........However, there are many who disagree with these contentions. [Acknowledge Valid Parts] While national ID cards could lessen a person's anonymity and privacy, [Counter Argument] this is a small loss that would be offset by a great increase in personal security. To Dershowitz--a self proclaimed civil libertarian--this tradeoff would be well worth it. According to Dershowitz, the national ID card would be only a little more intrusive than a photo ID card or social security card. Best of all, it would reduce or eliminate the need for racial profiling: "Anyone who had the [national ID] card could be allowed to pass through airports or building security more expeditiously, and anyone who opted out could be examined much more closely" (590). Such cards would enable airport security officials to do instant background checks on everyone. [Begin Concluding] The personal information in the system would stay in the system and never be made public. The only information on the card would be a person's "name, address, photo, and [finger]print" (Dershowitz 591).
Research Paper on Racial Profiling
How to start a research paper on racial profiling
A research paper on racial profiling is either argumentative or informative. Therefore, students should use concrete evidence to support their points. Besides, students should be prepared well to write such research papers to gain high grades. Thus, it is essential for students to discover the researchable topic on racial profiling, narrow and focus the topic to give clear information. Besides, find the sources for information and select those that are updated with current information that is relevant. On a separate note, group all the information in a sequence and document the information in a clear outline. To accomplish all the highlighted points, students should focus on the following tips.
Tips on how to start
- Brainstorm and select a topic on racial profiling
- Research information regarding the subject from books, journals, magazine, and internets
- Write a thesis statement for the research paper
- Draft an outline for the research paper
- Accurately gather notes and organize them according to the outline
- Write the draft
- Revise the draft and outline
Example of outline
Topic: Benefits of racial profiling
- Give background on racial profiling
- Writers then should close the introduction with thesis statement regarding the topic
- Illegal immigration
- Discrimination of Mexicans and Hispanics
- Unfair arrests and imprisonment
- Blacks versus whites
- Increase in ethnicity and racial prejudice
- Give a summary
- Restate a thesis statement
- State your position
- Give the final statement
- Provide direction for the reader
Example of a thesis
Racial profiling is a form of discrimination against people of color by the law enforcers who use it to fight illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and arrests among others.
Example of an introduction
In today’s society, people exhibit a lot of challenges whenever interacting with others. Almost everybody tends to believe any news conveyed in media hence sway the attitude towards liked and disliked in a given situation. One challenge that people face is racial profiling. The behavior is an inclusion of ethnic or racial characteristics towards a person of color. Separately, it is the use of a character in determining whether a person belongs to a particular outlawed group or commit a crime. For example, most people believe that Muslim communities are associated with terrorism. On other occasions, the minority in the society especially the blacks feel that they are usually targeted by the police officers and courts. In the USA for instance, African Americans face arrest by police officers and imprisonment more than their white colleagues. Media escalates information regarding the controversies on the racial profile to the extent that people have different perceptions regarding the vice. Racial profiling is a form of discrimination against people of color by the law enforcers who use it to fight illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and arrests among others.
How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on racial profiling
Body paragraphs usually direct the research papers on the main points and ideas. Therefore, students should ensure that the body paragraphs are informative with a good outline that is flexible; also it should relay information in order from the main point to the least important point. Besides, all the information should be cited correctly with proper integration of the sources in the discussion. Furthermore, the student should give summary, explanations, and analysis of the published articles instead of reporting the information from such sources. Also, provide a varying level that commences from generalization to detailed description and then back to generalization. The following tips henceforth give the students clue on the best way of presenting the body of a research paper.
Tips on body writing
- Write the first idea in a sentence for for the first paragraph
- Note the supporting points for the first idea
- Provide a detailed elaboration of the points supporting your idea
- Give evidence and examples to support the points strongly
- Repeat the procedure in other paragraphs with different points
- Use transitions to link the paragraphs with the thesis statement
Example of the first body paragraph
Racial profiling is majorly practiced in the USA, and the police mainly apply it to fish out illegal immigrants. However, the law enforcers overstep the mandate to discriminate other races especially Mexicans as well as Hispanics. For example, the law enforcers continue to pull over Hispanics along the Mexico border to capture illegal immigrants arriving in the USA. Besides, the enforcers of the law such as police officers take advantage and search for only the minority groups who are in high-crime towns. For example, Arizona state allowed officers to determine the immigration status of a person whenever such a person is arrested or during lawful routine traffic checks in major highways.
Example of the second body paragraph
Secondly, racial profiling promotes unlawful arrests and imprisonment. The act directly targets blacks who are harassed by law enforcers compared to whites. The majority of the communities where blacks reside in the USA are prone to high tensions between the police officers and people of color. In most cases, African-Americans face more arrests and imprisonment compared to their white colleagues who commit the same crime. In a metropolitan city with different people, more culprits arrested in such cities tend to be people of color or blacks. Besides, the numbers of black in prisons are more than whites for a similar crime. Lastly, blacks are more likely to face highway stop search and checking than the whites due to racial profiling.
Example of the third body paragraph
Besides, racial profiling continues to be enforced in the law especially in the USA only to promote ethnicity and prejudice. In most cases, police officers tend pulling drivers and motorists due to their races then search the vehicles for any illegal activity. Such activities even though happened during the WWII where thousands of Japanese immigrants and Japanese-Americans were placed in camps in the USA despite the majority of them being American citizens. The Japanese-Americans or immigrants had no breaches of the law. However, they were discriminated based on their race. Such activities were noted in the recent past especially during the war on terrorism. Consequently, many Japanese were arrested in the USA and detained by the federal police for questioning that led to harassments based on ethnicity and race.
How to finish a research paper on racial profiling
Research papers with elaborative conclusions provide summaries of the points in the paper body with the well-crafted position of the author. Besides, the student should elaborate on the importance of the findings with adding up points that elaborate on the importance. Furthermore, the student should shift the essay from the detailed perspective to generalization aspect with the course of action at the end of the essay.
Tips on conclusion writing
A student should have an outstanding conclusion of a research paper on racial profiling elaborating precisely his or her point of view regarding the topic. Therefore, it is essential to follow the below tips.
- Provide a summary of the research paper
- Reiterate the thesis statement in your own words
- Give an overview of the main points elaborated in the body paragraphs
- State your position regarding the topic
- Answer the ‘So what?’ question
Example of a conclusion
Racial profiling in real sense does not enhance law enforcement to curb illegal activities. The law enforcers in most cases turn a blind eye on the actual procedure for using the act. The officers are supposed to detain any suspect on any suspicious behavior using the action. Instead of following predetermined mindset on race or ethnic prejudice to arrest suspects. Thus, the act is immoral and violates a person’s freedom and in the long run, does not benefit even the law enforcers. The above-stated evidence indicates that the use of racial profiling is purely on discrimination against the race by the law enforcers in their quest for fighting illegal activities. Therefore, the governments should design new measures of identifying criminal activities such as identification of drug smugglers and illegal immigrants instead of using racial profiling technique. Besides, the proper way of data collection concerning racial profiling will be the best way to eradicate the act.
Tips on research paper revision
Revision of a research paper gives the paper its strength. Therefore, students should concentrate on revision in order to give the paper a rewarding grade. When performing a revision, students should add information that is relevant to the topic, delete irrelevant information, clarify different sections of the paper, examine the content of the paper and proofread the whole paper. Besides, the writer should inform the reader about the main points, address the audience appropriately using the simplest vocabularies, provide the main purpose of the paper and ensure that evidence supports the thesis statement. Lastly, the conclusion should be effective and has no errors. Therefore, students should follow the below tips to conduct revision.
- Read the research essay aloud and correct the errors of grammar, spelling, and sentence
- Invite a friend or a family member to read the essay and correct the various mistakes in
- Follow the instructions are provided by the tutor
- Use simple format and outline for the final paper
- Use Grammarly software to correct unnoticed errors, spelling mistakes, vocabularies and poor sentence structures