Standard Font Type For Essays On Poverty

Footnotes and other references

IV.   Outside sources

     A.   Documents of other organizations
     B.   Books and publications
     C.   Publishing data: special issues
     D.   Government publications
     E.   Laws
     F.   Working papers and research reports in a published series
     G.   Articles and chapters in a book or publication
     H.   Articles in a periodical
     I.     Articles in a newspaper
     J.    Articles on a website
     K.   Unpublished papers and dissertations
     L.   Databases
     M.   Public statements
     N.   Interviews
     O.   Personal communications

The instructions and examples given below apply to sources cited in footnotes and text notes. For instructions on sources given in reference lists and bibliographies, see Reference lists and bibliographies.

A.   Documents of other organizations

Documents issued by other organizations are normally cited in footnotes containing the following elements:

  1. Organization
  2. Title of document or item in document (may be given in text)
  3. Document symbol, if any
  4. “Available from” URL, for documents not available in print

The name of the organization is spelled out, not abbreviated, unless the abbreviation has been defined in the text or a list of abbreviations at the beginning of the text.

Examples:

The General Assembly,
. . .

          1. Takes note of the adoption by the International Maritime Organization of amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea introducing the long-range identification and tracking of ships system;1
__________
1 International Maritime Organization, document MSC 81/25/Add.1, annex 2, resolution MSC.202(81).

* * *

Despite intensive consultations held in pursuance of the Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration,3 the positions of countries on these issues remained largely unchanged.
__________
3 World Trade Organization, document WT/MIN(05)/DEC. Available from http://docsonline.wto.org

B.   Books and publications

Books and publications not issued by the United Nations Secretariat (those issued without a United Nations sales number) are cited in footnotes containing the elements listed below. A footnote will not necessarily contain every element listed but the information should be presented in the order indicated.

  1. Individual author, editor or institutional author (organization standing in place of author)
  2. Title and subtitle (in italics)
  3. Edition, if not the first (e.g. 2nd ed., revised ed.)
  4. Volume number and title, if any (volume number in standard font followed by a comma; title in
    italics); when a multivolume work is referred to as a whole, give volume numbers only
  5. Series title and number, if any (in standard font; optional)
  6. Publishing data (place, publisher, year) or symbol (in parentheses); see also Publishing data: special issues
  7. “Available from” URL, for sources accessed online
  8. Electronic medium, for a non-Internet source such as an e-book or CD-ROM (include version number, if any)

When an organization is both author and publisher (i.e. no separate publishing office is indicated on the title page), the name is given in the author’s place and omitted from the publishing data. The name of the organization is normally spelled out, not abbreviated, unless the abbreviation has been defined in the text or a list of abbreviations at the beginning of the text.

Examples:

One author; title and subtitle:

1 Branko Milanovic, Worlds Apart: Measuring International and Global Inequality (Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 2005).

Three authors; edition other than the first:

2 Janet Walsh Brown, Pamela Chasek and David L. Downie, Global Environmental Politics, 4th ed. ( Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 2006).

More than three authors; book in a series:

3 Joseph Stiglitz and others, Stability with Growth: Macroeconomics, Liberalization and Development, Initiative for Policy Dialogue Series (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006).

Editor in place of author; volume number and title:

4 Theodore H. Moran and Gerald T. West, eds., International Political Risk Management,
vol. 3, Looking to the Future (Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005).

Organization as author and publisher:

5 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Final Report of the World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000 (Paris, 2000).

Organization as author; symbol in place of publishing data:

6 International Atomic Energy Agency, Resolutions and Other Decisions of the General Conference, Fiftieth Session, 18–22 September 2006 (GC(50)/RES/DEC(2006)).

Organization as author and publisher; publication accessed online:

7 World Health Organization, World Health Report 2007: A Safer Future–Global Public Health Security in the 21st Century ( Geneva, 2007). Available from www.who/int/publications/en (accessed 17 January 2008).

Book issued on CD-ROM:

8 The National Academies, Science for the Sustainability Transition ( Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, 2002), CD-ROM.

E-book:

9 J.N.K. Rao, Small Area Estimation, Wiley Series in Survey Methodology ( New York, Wiley & Sons, 2005), e-book.

C.    Publishing data: special issues

Place of publication
Publisher's name
Co-publication
Book not yet published
Publishing data not available
International Standard Book and Serial Numbers

The publishing data for books and publications normally includes the place (city), publisher and date (year) of publication. In footnotes these elements are enclosed in parentheses and separated by a comma. For the style used in reference lists and bibliographies, see Reference lists and bibliographies.

Place of publication

The city of publication appears with the publisher’s name on the title page or copyright page of a book or publication. When more than one city is listed for a publisher, only the first one should normally be given in the footnote.

When the city is not widely known or could be confused with another place of the same name, the state or province should be given unless it is part of the publisher’s name. In some cases, it may be helpful to specify the country. Place names should be spelled out, not abbreviated.

Examples:

Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press
Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press
Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press
Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press
Gabriola Island, British Columbia, New Society Publishers
Harmondsworth, United Kingdom, Penguin Books

but Oxford, Oxford University Press

In an English text, the place names for all publishers are given in English (e.g. “ Vienna”, not “Wien”).

Publisher’s name

The publisher’s name should be given as it appears on the title page or copyright page of a book or publication, except that an initial “The” and the abbreviations “Inc.”, “Ltd.” and “S.A.” are omitted. When the name includes an ampersand (&), either “and” or “&” can be used. Names of publishers that are in another language (e.g. Presses Universitaires de France) should not be translated.

Co-publication

When a book has two or more publishers, each city of publication and publisher should be included in the reference. They should be listed in the order shown on the title page or copyright page of the book.

Examples:

1 Sangheon Lee and others, Working Time Around the World: Trends in Working Hours, Laws and Policies in a Global Comparative Perspective (London, Routledge; Geneva, International Labour Office, 2007).

2 Yilmaz Akyuz, Developing Countries and World Trade: Performance and Prospects (Geneva, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; Penang, Third World Network; London, Zed Books, 2003).

Book not yet published

When a book or publication is in preparation but has not yet been published, “forthcoming” replaces the publishing data.

Example:

3 Jessica Holmes, Emerging Environmental Issues: Will We Survive? (forthcoming).

Publishing data not available

When the place or publisher is not known, the abbreviation “n.p.” (no place and/or no publisher) should be used. When the date of publication is not known, the abbreviation “n.d.” (no date) is used. When no publishing data are available, “n.p., n.d.” may be used.

Example:

4 John Cole, Disappearing Islands (n.p., n.d.).

Note: The place is normally omitted for books and publications available only online and the abbreviation “n.p.” need not be used. The URL and the date on which the source was published, last updated or accessed should be included.

International Standard Book and Serial Numbers

Publications and books have an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) or, if they are part of a series, an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN). These numbers are not included in references.

D.   Government publications

For government publications, the elements included in footnotes are the same as those listed above for books and publications. The footnote begins with the following when there is no individual author or editor:

  1. Country (Not “Government of …”)
  2. Author department, ministry or other unit

When the government department or unit is both author and publisher (i.e. no separate publishing office is indicated on the title page), the name is given after the country and omitted from the publishing data. The name of the government department or unit is normally spelled out, not abbreviated.

Examples:

1 Namibia, Ministry of Labour, Namibia Labour Force Survey 1997 ( Windhoek, 2001).

2 United Kingdom, Department for Education and Skills, Care Matters: Time for Change ( London, The Stationery Office, 2007). Available from www.official-documents.gov.uk.

Publication by an individual author. For government publications prepared by an individual author, the author’s name is given first. The government department may be identified in the series title or the publishing data. In some cases, the publishing office itself will specify how the work should be cited.

Example:

1 Karen A. Stanecki, The AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century, United States Census Bureau, International Population Reports, Series WP02-2 (Washington, D.C., United States Government Printing Office, 2004). Available from www.census.gov.

E.   Laws

When laws, statutes, decrees and other acts having the force of law are cited in a general (non-legal) text, the reference normally includes the following elements:

  1. Country (not “Government of …”) or other jurisdiction
  2. Title of law or body of laws, if any (in standard font without quotation marks)
  3. Number of law, if any
  4. Date of adoption, if not part of title (in parentheses)
  5. Article, part, chapter or section, if relevant

When the law has been published in a compendium, the following elements may also be included:

      6.   Title of compendium in which the law was published (in italics)
      7.   Volume number, if any
      8.   Date of publication (in parentheses)

Other elements (such as a URL or the place of publication and publisher of a compendium) can be added as necessary. The order of elements may vary, depending on the nature of the work and the style used by the country or issuing body. For guidelines on the reference style used in legal texts, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, and The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 18th edition.

Examples:

1 Cameroon, Penal Code, Law No. 65-LF-24 of 12 November 1965 and Law No. 67-LF-1 of 12 June 1967, sects. 337-339.

2 Canada, Extradition Act, Statutes of Canada, chap. 18, sect. 1 (1999).

When the title of a law is given in another language, it is not italicized. For further information, see General instructions on footnotes and text notes/Points of style/Titles and subtitles/Works not translated.

Example:

1 Dominican Republic, Ley sobre comercio electrónico, documentos y firmas digitales (2002).

F.    Working papers and research reports in a published series

The following elements are included in footnotes:

  1. Author
  2. Title of paper or report (in quotation marks)
  3. Title of series (in standard font)
  4. Working paper or report number, if any
  5. Publishing data (place, publisher, year) (in parentheses)
  6. “Available from” URL, for paper or report accessed online

Example:

1 Stephane Straub, “Infrastructure and growth in developing countries: recent advances and research challenges”, Policy Research Working Paper, No. 4460 (Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2008). Available from http://go.worldbank.org/S6FTU2C430.

Note: Some working papers or research reports are issued as books or publications with an ISBN or ISSN. In such cases, the work is treated as a book and the title is italicized.

G.    Articles and chapters in a book or publication

Articles and chapters written by individual authors and included in a multi-author book or publication are cited in footnotes containing the following elements:

  1. Author of article or chapter
  2. Title of article or chapter (in quotation marks)
  3. “in” title and subtitle of book or publication (in italics)
  4. Edition, if not the first (e.g. 2nd ed. or revised ed.)
  5. Volume number and title, if any (volume number in standard font followed by a comma;
    title in italics); when a multivolume work is referred to as a whole, give volume numbers only
  6. Editor (ed.)
  7. Series title and number, if any (optional; in standard font)
  8. Publishing data (place, publisher, year) or symbol (in parentheses); see also Publishing data: special issues
  9. “Available from” URL, for an article accessed online
  10. Electronic medium, for a non-Internet source such as an e-book or CD-ROM (include version number, if any)

Examples:

1 César Calderón and Luis Servén, “Latin America’s infrastructure in the era of macroeconomic crises”, in The Limits of Stabilization: Infrastructure, Public Deficits and Growth in Latin America, William Easterly and Luis Servén, eds. ( Palo Alto, California, Stanford University Press; Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2003).

Volume number, no volume title:

2 Dani Rodrik, “Growth strategies”, in Handbook of Economic Growth, vol. 1A, Philippe Aghion and Steven Durlauf, eds. ( Amsterdam, North-Holland, 2005).

H.    Articles in a periodical

Periodicals include journals, magazines and newsletters. The following elements are included in footnotes:

  1. Author, if any
  2. Title of article (in quotation marks)
  3. Name of periodical (in italics)
  4. Volume and issue numbers, if any
  5. Date or season as shown on periodical (in parentheses when there is an issue number)
  6. “Available from” URL, for an article accessed online

Inclusive page numbers for articles are not required but may be retained if the author has consistently supplied them.

Examples:

Journal with volume, issue and date:

1 David E. Bloom, “Governing global health”, Finance and Development, vol. 44, No. 4 (December 2007).

2 Laurie Garrett, “The challenge of global health”, Foreign Affairs, vol. 86, No. 1 (January/February 2007), p. 15.

I.    Articles in a newspaper

The following elements are included in footnotes:

  1. Author, if any
  2. Title of article (in quotation marks)
  3. Name of newspaper in the language of publication (in italics)
  4. City of publication (in standard font, in parentheses), when necessary
  5. Date of article (day, month, year)
  6. “Available from” URL, for an article accessed online

Initial articles are omitted from the names of English-language newspapers (e.g. New York Times , not The New York Times). The article is retained when it is part of the name of a newspaper in another language (e.g. Le Monde, El País).

The city of publication is added if it is not part of the name of the newspaper and the paper is not widely known or could be confused with another paper of the same name or when the name is in another language.

Examples:

Article with author:

1 Rana Husseini, “Women leaders attempt to bridge East–West cultural divide”, Jordan Times, 9 May 2007.

Article without author; city included for clarification:

2 “Aviation MD allowed risky planes to fly to Congo”, Daily Monitor ( Kampala), 15 August 2002.

Name of newspaper in another language:

3 Piotr Adamowicz, “Smuggling from Poland”, Rzeczpospolita ( Warsaw), 2 January 2000.

Article accessed online:

4 Sara Corbett, “Can the cellphone help end global poverty?”, New York Times, 13 April 2008. Available from www.nytimes.com/2008/04/13/magazine/13anthropology-t.html.

Reference in the text. A general reference to the newspaper as a whole is sometimes sufficient. The name of the newspaper and the date are then given directly in the text. When referencing a direct quotation or summary of an article from a newspaper, it is preferable to insert the name of the newspaper and the date in parentheses after the quotation or summary.

Examples:

As reported in Le Monde on 2 July 2009, ….

* * *

It was reported that [quotation or summary]. (Jerusalem Post, 3 December 2007)

J.    Articles on a website

The following elements are included in footnotes:

  1. Author of article, if any, or organization responsible for website
  2. Title of article (in quotation marks)
  3. Date posted or last updated, if indicated
  4. “Available from” URL
  5. Date accessed, if no date is indicated on website (in parentheses)

Example:

1 European Commission, “More aid for disaster victims in 2008”, 8 January 2008. Available from http://ec.europa.eu/news/external_relations/080108_1_en.htm.

When an article has been removed from the website and cannot be found on another site, the editor may delete the reference and, in consultation with the author, adjust the content of the text if necessary.

K.    Unpublished papers and dissertations

The following elements are included in footnotes:

  1. Author
  2. Title (in quotation marks)
  3. Nature of the work (e.g. paper prepared for an organization or presented at a meeting; thesis or dissertation)
  4. Name of organization or meeting for which paper was prepared
  5. Name of university, for thesis or dissertation
  6. Place and date (omit place for thesis or dissertation)

Examples:

Paper prepared for an organization:

1 Aaron Cosbey and others, “The rush to regionalism: sustainable development and regional/bilateral approaches to trade and investment liberalization”, paper prepared for the International Development Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada, November 2004.

Paper prepared for a meeting:  

2 Alexander Salagaev, “Juvenile delinquency”, paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Global Priorities for Youth, Helsinki, October 2002.

Dissertation:

3 Maria Smith-Jones, “The changing role of women in the public sector, 1975–2005”, PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 2007.

L.    Databases

Information from an online database is documented in a footnote containing the following elements:

  1. Organization responsible for database
  2. Name of section or data file, if applicable
  3. Name of database (in standard font)
  4. Date published or last updated, if indicated
  5. “Available from” URL, for database on a website
  6. Date accessed, if no date is indicated on website (in parentheses)

Other information, such as a table number or specific links, may be included when appropriate.

Example:

1 World Bank, Population projections, HNPStats database. Available from http://go.worldbank.org/H9UC4943A0 (accessed 15 July 2009).

Databases issued on a CD-ROM are treated as a book or publication.

M.    Public statements

The following elements are included in footnotes:

  1. Name and title of speaker
  2. Exact or descriptive title of statement (exact title in quotation marks)
  3. Event or body addressed
  4. Place and date of statement
  5. “Available from” URL, for statement accessed online

Example:

1 Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, “Water: how to manage a vital resource”, statement to the OECD Forum 2007, Paris, 14 May 2007. Available from www.oecd.org.

References to public statements may be given in the text when appropriate.

Example:

The Secretary-General of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in a statement made on 17 May to the OECD Forum 2007, noted that… (see www.oecd.org).

N.    Interviews

References to interviews may be given directly in the text or in a footnote. They should include the following information:

  1. Person interviewed, if appropriate
  2. Interviewer, if not apparent from context
  3. Place and date of interview, if known

When the person interviewed cannot be named, a descriptive term should be used instead. When the identity of the interviewer is apparent from the context (e.g. the interview is cited in a report by a panel of experts who conducted the interviews), the interviewer need not be specified.

Examples:

People interviewed not named:

According to several international observers interviewed by the Panel in Nairobi on 18 September and 26 October 2002,….

Interviewer omitted:

1 Interview with Osman Ahmed Hassan, Head of Somaliland Representation to the United Kingdom, London, 4 January 2003.

O.    Personal communications

References to personal communications (e.g. letters, email, telephone conversations and discussions) may be given in the text or in a footnote and should include the following information:

  1. Sender or person providing the information
  2. Title or affiliation of sender, if relevant (normally included in a footnote)
  3. Subject of the communication
  4. “Personal communication” or type of communication (e.g. discussion, email)
  5. Recipient of information, if relevant
  6. Date of communication

References to personal email messages should not include the sender’s email address.

Examples:

In text:

The World Health Organization has found an extremely high incidence of tuberculosis in all age groups throughout the region (Jason Doucette, personal communication, 29 May 2009).

Footnote:

1 Jason Doucette, World Health Organization, “Incidence of tuberculosis in southern Africa”, email to author, 29 May 2009.

 

FF Mark

Just as much as the original design of the Freischwinger could neither be fully attributed to Mart Stam nor to Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (or even to Marcel Breuer, as some historians like to believe), no type designer can claim to have invented the geometric sans. Several designers and the respective foundries sensed the need to produce a type that would reflect the ideas and innovations of the 1920s — more or less at the same time. While these typefaces share the same core idea, they do have distinctions, special features and peculiarities.

ff Mark is not a revival of any of the typefaces mentioned above in particular. Evidently, it is based on a concept that is apparent in many examples from the past. What it is, is an original contemporary design that serves today’s needs. While some of these examples are charming and elegant they may appear quirky in single weights and are not consistent throughout the typographic system.

In the capital letters, ff Mark willfully avoids the capitalis monumentalis proportions and instead consistently represents wide letter shapes with the x-height in good balance. Overall, the typeface bears low contrast and even though very little stroke modulation has been applied to the letter shapes it maintains excellent legibility even in smaller type sizes.

It extends to ten weights with more than a thousand characters each, allowing for a wide range of possibilities in creating typographic hierarchy. Besides the more modern ff Mark regular, the typeface is equipped with a book weight to support rather traditional text appearances. This feature is on par with Neuzeit-Buchschrift, which was available in 6–12 pt. While the oblique fonts in some older examples of the geometric sans do not fully match the rest of the typeface (and thus can seem disturbing), the ff Mark italic weights are more harmonized and retain the geometric character just as much as their upright counterparts. What’s more, ff Mark has small capitals. Within this large system of weights, very little optical corrections or compromises have been made to keep the type as consistent as possible.

In some later digitizations of the typefaces mentioned above, certain glyphs were often added in the redesign process: for example currency signs, the @-symbol, etc. Unfortunately, these were often not drawn accurately and certainly not with the necessary dedication deserved and they therefore remain as alien elements in the digital versions. Obviously, ff Mark is equipped with all the necessary glyphs to provide a satisfying contemporary font for all eventualities.

Furthermore, the ligature provided for each of the weights, the historic letter combination ‘ft’, is a ligature reminiscent of Futura, and one that the editor Jakob Hegener apparently compared to the shape of a horseshoe magnet. 8 A stylistic set of particularly “German features” have also been added: ‘7’ with a crossbar and a long ‘s’. Additionally, the font contains several shapes and arrows following the sets of geometric shapes in the original Futura. Details such as the position of the tail in capital letters ‘K’ and ‘R’ and the ear-like umlaut-dots on the ‘O’, quote shapes from the past and personalize the typeface.

ff Mark takes on ideas that have worked well just as much as it learns from defects of its historical examples. What it does, is successfully perform how these challenges can be overcome. True to the geometric tradition, but better, ff Mark is a typeface of our time.


Ear-like umlaut-dots quote shapes from the past and personalize
the typeface.


Breaking tradition with ten weights and over a thousand characters
within each weight.


More consistent terminals (e, s, c).
FF Mark (top) v. Futura (bottom)


Willfully avoiding the capitalis monumentalis proportions.
FF Mark (top) v. Futura (bottom)


Wider proportions and a better-balanced and bigger x-height.
FF Mark (top) v. Futura (bottom)

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